BY-LAWS

                                       OF

                              PLAYBOY ONLINE, INC.

                            (A DELAWARE CORPORATION)

                             ----------------------

                                   ARTICLE 1

                                   DEFINITIONS
                                   -----------

                As used in these By-laws, unless the context otherwise requires,
the term:

          1.1. "Assistant Secretary" means an Assistant Secretary of the
"Assistant Treasurer" of the corporation.

          1.2. "Assistant Treasurer" means an Assistant Treasurer of the
Corporation.

          1.3. "Board" means the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

          1.4. "By-laws" means the initial by-laws of the Corporation, as
amended from time to time.

          1.5. "Certificate of Incorporation" means the initial certificate of
incorporation of the Corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated from
time to time.

          1.6. "Chairman" means the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the
Corporation.

          1.7. "Corporation" means Playboy Online, Inc.

          1.8. "Directors" means directors of the Corporation.

          1.9. "Entire Board" means all directors of the Corporation in office,
whether or not present at a meeting of the Board, but disregarding vacancies.

          1.10. "General Corporation Law" means the General Corporation Law of
the State of Delaware, as amended from time to time.

          1.11. "Office of the Corporation" means the executive office of the
Corporation, anything in Section 131 of the General Corporation Law to the
contrary notwithstanding.

          1.12. "President" means the President of the Corporation.

          1.13. "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Corporation.

          1.14. "Stockholders" means stockholders of the Corporation.


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          1.15. "Treasurer" means the Treasurer of the Corporation.

          1.16. "Vice President" means a Vice President of the Corporation.

                                   ARTICLE 2

                                  STOCKHOLDERS
                                  ------------

          2.1. PLACE OF MEETINGS. Every meeting of Stockholders shall be held at
the office of the Corporation or at such other place within or without the State
of Delaware as shall be specified or fixed in the notice of such meeting or in
the waiver of notice thereof.

          2.2. ANNUAL MEETING. A meeting of Stockholders shall be held annually
for the election of Directors and the transaction of other business at such hour
and on such business day as may be determined by the Board and designated in the
notice of meeting.

          2.3. DEFERRED MEETING FOR ELECTION OF DIRECTORS' ETC. If the annual
meeting of Stockholders for the election of Directors and the transaction of
other business is not held within the months specified in Section 2.2 hereof,
the Board shall call a meeting of Stockholders for the election of Directors and
the transaction of other business as soon thereafter as convenient.

          2.4. OTHER SPECIAL MEETINGS. A special meeting of Stockholders (other
than a special meeting for the election of Directors), unless otherwise
prescribed by statute, may be called at any time by the Board or by the
President or by the Secretary. At any special meeting of Stockholders only such
business may be transacted as is related to the purpose or purposes of such
meeting set forth in the notice thereof given pursuant to Section 2.6 hereof or
in any waiver of notice thereof given pursuant to Section 2.7 hereof.

          2.5. FIXING RECORD DATE. For the purpose of (a) determining the
Stockholders entitled (i) to notice of or to vote at any meeting of Stockholders
or any adjournment thereof, (ii) unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of
Incorporation to express consent to corporate action in writing without a
meeting or (iii) to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or
allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any
change, conversion or exchange of stock; or (b) any other lawful action, the
Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon
which the resolution fixing the record date was adopted by the Board and which
record date shall not be (x) in the case of clause (a)(i) above, more than sixty
nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting, (y) in the case of
clause (a)(ii) above, more than 10 days after the date upon which the resolution
fixing the record date was adopted by the Board and (z) in the case of clause
(a)(iii) or (b) above, more than sixty days prior to such action. If no such
record date is fixed:

               2.5.1. the record date for determining Stockholders entitled to
          notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the
          close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is
          given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day
          next preceding the day on which the meeting is held;

               2.5.2. the record date for determining stockholders entitled to
          express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting
          (unless otherwise provided in the


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          Certificate of Incorporation), when no prior action by the Board is
          required under the General Corporation Law, shall be the first day on
          which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or
          proposed to be taken is delivered to the Corporation by delivery to
          its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of
          business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of
          the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are
          recorded; and when prior action by the Board is required under the
          General Corporation Law, the record date for determining stockholders
          entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting
          shall be at the close of business on the date on which the Board
          adopts the resolution taking such prior action; and

               2.5.3. the record date for determining stockholders for any
          purpose other than those specified in Sections 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 shall
          be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the
          resolution relating thereto.

When a determination of Stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any
meeting of Stockholders has been made as provided in this Section 2.5, such
determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof unless the Board foes a new
record date for the adjourned meeting. Delivery made to the Corporation's
registered office in accordance with Section 2.5.2 shall be by hand or by
certified or registered mail, return receipt requested.

          2.6. NOTICE OF MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS. Except as otherwise provided
in Sections 2.5 and 2.7 hereof, whenever under the provisions of any statute,
the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, Stockholders are required or
permitted to take any action at a meeting, written notice shall be given stating
the place, date and hour of the meeting and, in the case of a special meeting,
the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise
provided by any statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, a
copy of the notice of any meeting shall be given, personally or by mail, not
less than ten nor more than sixty days before the date of the meeting, to each
Stockholder entitled to notice of or to vote at such meeting. If mailed, such
notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail,
with postage prepaid, directed to the Stockholder at his or her address as it
appears on the records of the Corporation. An affidavit of the Secretary or an
Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent of the Corporation that the notice
required by this Section 2.6 has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be
prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein. When a meeting is adjourned to
another time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the
time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is
taken, and at the adjourned meeting any business may be transacted that might
have been transacted at the meeting as originally called. If, however, the
adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new
record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned
meeting shall be given to each Stockholder of record entitled to vote at the
meeting.

          2.7. WAIVERS OF NOTICE. Whenever the giving of any notice is required
by statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, a waiver thereof,
in writing, signed by the Stockholder or Stockholders entitled to said notice,
whether before or after the event as to which such notice is required, shall be
deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance by a Stockholder at a meeting shall
constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting except when the Stockholder
attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the


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meeting, to the transaction of any business on the ground that the meeting has
not been lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at,
nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Stockholders need be
specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by statute, the
Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws.

          2.8. LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS. The Secretary shall prepare and make, or
cause to be prepared and made, at least ten days before every meeting of
Stockholders, a complete list of the Stockholders entitled to vote at the
meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each
Stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each Stockholder.
Such list shall be open to the examination of any Stockholder, the Stockholder's
agent, or attorney, at the Stockholder's expense, for any purpose germane to the
meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior
to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be
held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so
specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be
produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time
thereof, and may be inspected by any Stockholder who is present. The Corporation
shall maintain the Stockholder list in written form or in another form capable
of conversion into written form within a reasonable time. Upon the willful
neglect or refusal of the Directors to produce such a list at any meeting for
the election of Directors, they shall be ineligible for election to any office
at such meeting. The stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the
Stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list of Stockholders or
the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of
Stockholders.

          2.9. QUORUM OF STOCKHOLDERS; ADJOURNMENT. Except as otherwise provided
by any statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, the holders
of one-third of all outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote at any meeting
of Stockholders, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of any business at such meeting. When a quorum is
once present to organize a meeting of Stockholders, it is not broken by the
subsequent withdrawal of any Stockholders. The holders of a majority of the
shares of stock present in person or represented by proxy at any meeting of
Stockholders, including an adjourned meeting whether or not a quorum is present,
may adjourn such meeting to another time and place. Shares of its own stock
belonging to the Corporation or to another corporation, if a majority of the
shares entitled to vote in the election of directors of such other corporation
is held, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation, shall neither be entitled
to vote nor be counted for quorum purposes; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the
foregoing shall not limit the right of the Corporation to vote stock, including
but not limited to its own stock, held by it in a fiduciary capacity.

          2.10. VOTING; PROXIES. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of
Incorporation, every Stockholder of record shall be entitled at every meeting of
Stockholders to one vote for each share of capital stock standing in his or her
name on the record of Stockholders determined in accordance with Section 2.5
hereof. If the Certificate of Incorporation provides for more or less than one
vote for any share on any matter, each reference in the By-laws or the General
Corporation Law to a majority or other proportion of stock shall refer to such
majority or other proportion of the votes of such stock. The provisions of
Sections 212 and 217 of the General Corporation Law shall apply in determining
whether any shares of capital stock may be voted and the persons, if any,
entitled to vote such shares; but the Corporation shall be protected


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in assuming that the persons in whose names shares of capital stock standion the
stock ledger of the Corporation are entitled to vote such shares. Holders of
redeemable shares of stock are not entitled to vote after the notice of
redemption is mailed to such holders and a sum sufficient to redeem the stocks
has been deposited with a bank, trust company, or other financial institution
under an irrevocable obligation to pay the holders the redemption price on
surrender of the shares of stock. At any meeting of Stockholders (at which a
quorum was present to organize the meeting), all matters, except as otherwise
provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws,
shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast at such meeting by the holders
of shares present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote
thereon, whether or not a quorum is present when the vote is taken. All
elections of Directors shall be by written ballot unless otherwise provided in
the Certificate of Incorporation. In voting on any other question on which a
vote by ballot is required by law or is demanded by any Stockholder entitled to
vote, the voting shall be by ballot. Each ballot shall be signed by the
Stockholder voting or the Stockholder's proxy and shall state the number of
shares voted. On all other questions, the voting may be VIVA VOCE. Each
Stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of Stockholders or to express consent
or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize
another person or persons to act for such Stockholder by proxy. The validity and
enforceability of any proxy shall be determined in accordance with Section 212
of the General Corporation Law. A Stockholder may revoke any proxy that is not
irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by filing an
instrument in writing revoking the proxy or by delivering a proxy in accordance
with applicable law bearing a later date to the Secretary.

          2.11. VOTING PROCEDURES AND INSPECTORS OF ELECTION AT MEETINGS OF
STOCKHOLDERS. The Board, in advance of any meeting of Stockholders, may appoint
one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof.
The Board may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace
any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate has been appointed
or is able to act at a meeting, the person presiding at the meeting may appoint,
and on the request of any Stockholder entitled to vote thereat shall appoint,
one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering
upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully
to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the
best of his or her ability. The inspectors shall (a) ascertain the number of
shares outstanding and the voting power of each, (b) determine the shares
represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (c) count
all votes and ballots, (d) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record
of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the
inspectors, and (e) certify their determination of the number of shares
represented at the meeting and their count of all votes and ballots. The
inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the
inspectors in the performance of their duties. Unless otherwise provided by the
Board, the date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each
matter upon which the Stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be determined by
the person presiding at the meeting and shall be announced at the meeting. No
ballot, proxies or votes, or any revocation thereof or change thereto, shall be
accepted by the inspectors after the closing of the polls unless the Court of
Chancery of the State of Delaware upon application by a Stockholder shall
determine otherwise.

          2.12. ORGANIZATION. At each meeting of Stockholders, the President, or
in the absence of the President, the Chairman, or if there is no Chairman or if
there be one and the Chairman is absent, a Vice President, and in case more than
one Vice President shall be present,


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that Vice President designated by the Board (or in the absence of any such
designation, the most senior Vice President, based on age, present), shall act
as chairman of the meeting. The Secretary, or in his or her absence, one of the
Assistant Secretaries, shall act as secretary of the meeting. In case none of
the officers above designated to act as chairman or secretary of the meeting,
respectively, shall be present, a chairman or a secretary of the meeting, as the
case may be, shall be chosen by a majority of the votes cast at such meeting by
the holders of shares of capital stock present in person or represented by proxy
and entitled to vote at the meeting.

          2.13. ORDER OF BUSINESS. The order of business at all meetings of
Stockholders shall be as determined by the chairman of the meeting, but the
order of business to be followed at any meeting at which a quorum is present may
be changed by a majority of the votes cast at such meeting by the holders of
shares of capital stock present in person or represented by proxy and entitled
to vote at the meeting.

          2.14. WRITTEN CONSENT OF STOCKHOLDERS WITHOUT A MEETING. Unless
otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required by
the General Corporation Law to be taken at any annual or special meeting of
stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a
vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken,
shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the
minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action
at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted
and shall be delivered (by hand or by certified or registered mail, return
receipt requested) to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in
the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent
of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings
of stockholders are recorded. Every written consent shall bear the date of
signature of each stockholder who signs the consent and no written consent shall
be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within 60
days of the earliest dated consent delivered in the manner required by this
Section 2.14, written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take
action are delivered to the Corporation as aforesaid. Prompt notice of the
taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written
consent shall be given to those Stockholders who have not consented in writing.

                                    ARTICLE 3

                                    DIRECTORS
                                    ---------

          3.1. GENERAL POWERS. Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate
of Incorporation, the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed
by or under the direction of the Board. The Board may adopt such rules and
regulations, not inconsistent with the Certificate of Incorporation or these
By-laws or applicable laws, as it may deem proper for the conduct of its
meetings and the management of the Corporation. In addition to the powers
expressly conferred by these By-laws, the Board may exercise all powers and
perform all acts that are not required, by these By-laws or the Certificate of
Incorporation or by statute, to be exercised and performed by the Stockholders.

          3.2. NUMBER; QUALIFICATION: TERM OF OFFICE. The Board shall consist of
one or more members. The number of Directors shall be fixed initially by the
incorporator and may


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thereafter be changed from time to time by action of the stockholders or by
action of the Board. Directors need not be stockholders. Each Director shall
hold office until a successor is elected and qualified or until the Director's
death, resignation or removal.

          3.3. ELECTION. Directors shall, except as otherwise required by
statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, be elected by a plurality of the
votes cast at a meeting of stockholders by the holders of shares entitled to
vote in the election.

          3.4. NEWLY CREATED DIRECTORSHIPS AND VACANCIES. Unless otherwise
provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, newly created Directorships
resulting from an increase in the number of Directors and vacancies occurring in
the Board for any other reason, including the removal of Directors without
cause, may be filled by the affirmative votes of a majority of the entire Board,
although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining Director, or may be elected
by a plurality of the votes cast by the holders of shares of capital stock
entitled to vote in the election at a special meeting of stockholders called for
that purpose. A Director elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected to hold
office until a successor is elected and qualified, or until the Director's
earlier death, resignation or removal.

          3.5. RESIGNATION. Any Director may resign at any time by written
notice to the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect at the time
therein specified, and, unless otherwise specified in such resignation, the
acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

          3.6. REMOVAL. Subject to the provisions of Section 141(k) of the
General Corporation Law, any or all of the Directors may be removed with or
without cause by vote of the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled
to vote at an election of Directors.

          3.7. COMPENSATION. Each Director, in consideration of his or her
service as such, shall be entitled to receive from the Corporation such amount
per annum or such fees for attendance at Directors' meetings, or both, as the
Board may from time to time determine, together with reimbursement for the
reasonable out-of pocket expenses, if any, incurred by such Director in
connection with the performance of his or her duties. Each Director who shall
serve as a member of any committee of Directors in consideration of serving as
such shall be entitled to such additional amount per annum or such fees for
attendance at committee meetings, or both, as the Board may from time to time
determine, together with reimbursement for the reasonable out-of-pocket
expenses, if any, incurred by such Director in the performance of his or her
duties. Nothing contained in this Section 3.7 shall preclude any Director from
serving the Corporation or its subsidiaries in any other capacity and receiving
proper compensation therefor.

          3.8. TIMES AND PLACES OF MEETINGS. The Board may hold meetings, both
regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware. The times
and places for holding meetings of the Board may be fixed from time to time by
resolution of the Board or (unless contrary to a resolution of the Board) in the
notice of the meeting.

          3.9. ANNUAL MEETINGS. On the day when and at the place where the
annual meeting of stockholders for the election of Directors is held, and as
soon as practicable thereafter, the Board may hold its annual meeting, without
notice of such meeting, for the


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purposes of organization, the election of officers and the transaction of other
business. The annual meeting of the Board may be held at any other time and
place specified in a notice given as provided in Section 3.11 hereof for special
meetings of the Board or in a waiver of notice thereof.

          3.10. REGULAR MEETINGS. Regular meetings of the Board may be held
without notice at such times and at such places as shall from time to time be
determined by the Board.

          3.11. SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the Board may be called by
the Chairman, the President or the Secretary or by any two or more Directors
then serving on at least one day's notice to each Director given by one of the
means specified in Section 3.14 hereof other than by mail, or on at least three
days' notice if given by mail. Special meetings shall be called by the Chairman,
President or Secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request
of any two or more of the Directors then serving.

          3.12. TELEPHONE MEETINGS. Directors or members of any committee
designated by the Board may participate in a meeting of the Board or of such
committee by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment
by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other,
and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 3.12 shall constitute
presence in person at such meeting.

          3.13. ADJOURNED MEETINGS. A majority of the Directors present at any
meeting of the Board, including an adjourned meeting, whether or not a quorum is
present, may adjourn such meeting to another time and place. At least one day's
notice of any adjourned meeting of the Board shall be given to each Director
whether or not present at the time of the adjournment, if such notice shall be
given by one of the means specified in Section 3.14 hereof other than by mail,
or at least three days' notice if by mail. Any business may be transacted at an
adjourned meeting that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally
called.

          3.14. NOTICE PROCEDURE. Subject to Sections 3.11 and 3.17 hereof,
whenever, under the provisions of any statute, the Certificate of Incorporation
or these By-laws, notice is required to be given to any Director, such notice
shall be deemed given effectively if given in person or by telephone, by mail
addressed to such Director at such Director's address as it appears on the
records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, or by telegram, telex,
telecopy or similar means addressed as aforesaid.

          3.15. WAIVER OF NOTICE. Whenever the giving of any notice is required
by statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, a waiver thereof,
in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice, whether
before or after the event as to which such notice is required, shall be deemed
equivalent to notice. Attendance by a person at a meeting shall constitute a
waiver of notice of such meeting except when the person attends a meeting for
the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the
transaction of any business on the ground that the meeting has not been lawfully
called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose
of, any regular or special meeting of the Directors or a committee of Directors
need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by statute,
the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws.


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          3.16. ORGANIZATION. At each meeting of the Board, the Chairman, or in
the absence of the Chairman, the President, or in the absence of the President,
a chairman chosen by a majority of the Directors present, shall preside. The
Secretary shall act as secretary at each meeting of the Board. In case the
Secretary shall be absent from any meeting of the Board, an Assistant Secretary
shall perform the duties of secretary at such meeting; and in the absence from
any such meeting of the Secretary and all Assistant Secretaries, the person
presiding at the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the
meeting.

          3.17. QUORUM OF DIRECTORS. The presence in person of a majority of the
entire Board shall be necessary and sufficient to constitute a quorum for the
transaction of business at any meeting of the Board, but a majority of a smaller
number may adjourn any such meeting to a later date.

          3.18. ACTION BY MAJORITY VOTE. Except as otherwise expressly required
by statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, the act of a
majority of the Directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present
shall be the act of the Board.

          3.19. ACTION WITHOUT MEETING. Unless otherwise restricted by the
Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, any action required or permitted
to be taken at any meeting of the Board or of any committee thereof may be taken
without a meeting if all Directors or members of such committee, as the case may
be, consent thereto in writing, and the writing or writings are filed with the
minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee.

                                   ARTICLE 4

                             COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD
                             -----------------------

The Board may, by resolution passed by a vote of a majority of the entire Board,
designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of
the Directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more Directors
as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or
disqualified member at any meeting of such committee. If a member of a committee
shall be absent from any meeting, or disqualified from voting thereat, the
remaining member or members present and not disqualified from voting, whether or
not such member or members constitute a quorum, may, by a unanimous vote,
appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any
such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided
in the resolution of the Board passed as aforesaid, shall have and may exercise
all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and
affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be
impressed on all papers that may require it, but no such committee shall have
the power or authority of the Board in reference to amending the Certificate of
Incorporation, adopting an agreement of merger or consolidation under section
251 or section 252 of the General Corporation Law, recommending to the
stockholders (a) the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the
Corporation's property and assets, or (b) a dissolution of the Corporation or a
revocation of a dissolution, or amending the By-laws of the Corporation; and,
unless the resolution designating it expressly so provides, no such committee
shall have the power and authority to declare a dividend, to authorize the
issuance of stock or to adopt a certificate of ownership and merger pursuant to
Section 253 of the General Corporation Law.


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<PAGE>


Unless otherwise specified in the resolution of the Board designating a
committee, at all meetings of such committee a majority of the total number of
members of the committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of
business, and the vote of a majority of the members of the committee present at
any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the committee.
Committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings. Unless the Board otherwise
provides, each committee designated by the Board may make, alter and repeal
rules for the conduct of its business. In the absence of such rules each
committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board conducts
its business pursuant to Article 3 of these By-laws.

                                    ARTICLE 5

                                    OFFICERS
                                    --------

          5.1. POSITIONS. The officers of the Corporation shall be a President,
a Secretary, a Treasurer and such other officers as the Board may appoint,
including a Chairman, one or more Vice Presidents and one or more Assistant
Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers, who shall exercise such powers and perform
such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board. The Board may
designate one or more Vice Presidents as Executive Vice Presidents and may use
descriptive words or phrases to designate the standing, seniority or areas of
special competence of the Vice Presidents elected or appointed by it. Any number
of offices may be held by the same person unless the Certificate of
Incorporation or these By-laws otherwise provide.

          5.2. APPOINTMENT. The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by
the Board at its annual meeting or at such other time or times as the Board
shall determine.

          5.3. COMPENSATION. The compensation of all officers of the Corporation
shall be fixed by the Board. No officer shall be prevented from receiving a
salary or other compensation by reason of the fact that the officer is also a
Director.

          5.4. TERM OF OFFICE. Each officer of the Corporation shall hold office
for the term for which he or she is elected and until such officer's successor
is chosen and qualifies or until such officer's earlier death, resignation or
removal. Any officer may resign at any time upon written notice to the
Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect at the date of receipt of such
notice or at such later time as is therein specified, and, unless otherwise
specified, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it
effective. The resignation of an officer shall be without prejudice to the
contract rights of the Corporation, if any. Any officer elected or appointed by
the Board may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by vote of a
majority of the entire Board. Any vacancy occurring in any of flee of the
Corporation shall be filled by the Board. The removal of an of an officer
without cause shall be without prejudice to the officer's contract rights, if
any. The election or appointment of an officer shall not of itself create
contract rights.

          5.5. FIDELITY BONDS. The Corporation may secure the fidelity of any or
all of its officers or agents by bond or otherwise.


                                       10
<PAGE>


          5.6. CHAIRMAN. The Chairman, if one shall have been appointed, shall
preside at all meetings of the Board and shall exercise such powers and perform
such other duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board.

          5.7. PRESIDENT. The President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of
the Corporation and shall have general supervision over the business of the
Corporation, subject, however, to the control of the Board and of any duly
authorized committee of Directors. The President shall preside at all meetings
of the Stockholders and at all meetings of the Board at which the Chairman (if
there be one) is not present. The President may sign and execute in the name of
the Corporation deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts and other instruments except
in cases in which the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated
by the Board or by these By-laws to some other officer or agent of the
Corporation or shall be required by statute otherwise to be signed or executed
and, in general, the President shall perform all duties incident to the office
of President of a corporation and such other duties as may from time to time be
assigned to the President by the Board.

          5.8. VICE PRESIDENTS. At the request of the President, or, in the
President's absence, at the request of the Board, the Vice Presidents shall (in
such order as may be designated by the Board, or, in the absence of any such
designation, in order of seniority based on age) perform all of the duties of
the President and, in so performing, shall have all the powers of, and be
subject to all restrictions upon, the President. Any Vice President may sign and
execute in the name of the Corporation deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts or
other instruments, except in cases in which the signing and execution thereof
shall be expressly delegated by the Board or by these By-laws to some ether
officer or agent of the Corporation, or shall be required by statute otherwise
to be signed or executed, and each Vice President shall perform such other
duties as from time to time may be assigned to such Vice President by the Board
or by the President.

          5.9. SECRETARY. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board
and of the Stockholders and shall record all the proceedings of the meetings of
the Board and of the stockholders in a book to be kept for that purpose, and
shall perform like duties for committees of the Board, when required. The
Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all special meetings of
the Board and of the stockholders and shall perform such other duties as may be
prescribed by the Board or by the President, under whose supervision the
Secretary shall be. The Secretary shall have custody of the corporate seal of
the Corporation, and the Secretary, or an Assistant secretary, shall have
authority to impress the same on any instrument requiring it, and when so
impressed the seal may be attested by the signature of the Secretary or by the
signature of such Assistant Secretary. The Board may give general authority to
any other officer to impress the seal of the Corporation and to attest the same
by such officer's signature. The Secretary or an Assistant Secretary may also
attest all instruments signed by the President or any Vice President. The
Secretary shall have charge of all the books, records and papers of the
Corporation relating to its organization and management, shall see that the
reports, statements and other documents required by statute are properly kept
and filed and, in general, shall perform all duties incident to the office of
Secretary of a corporation and such other duties as may from time to time be
assigned to the Secretary by the Board or by the President.


                                       11
<PAGE>


          5.10. TREASURER. The Treasurer shall have charge and custody of, and
be responsible for, all funds, securities and notes of the Corporation; receive
and give receipts for moneys due and payable to the Corporation from any sources
whatsoever; deposit all such moneys and valuable effects in the name and to the
credit of the Corporation in such depositaries as may be designated by the
Board; against proper vouchers, cause such funds to be disbursed by checks or
drafts on the authorized depositaries of the Corporation signed in such manner
as shall be determined by the Board and be responsible for the accuracy of the
amounts of all moneys so disbursed; regularly enter or cause to be entered in
books or other records maintained for the purpose full and adequate account of
all moneys received or paid for the account of the Corporation; have the right
to require from time to time reports or statements giving such information as
the Treasurer may desire with respect to any and all financial transactions of
the Corporation from the officers or agents transacting the same; render to the
President or the Board, whenever the President or the Board shall require the
Treasurer so to do, an account of the financial condition of the Corporation and
of all financial transactions of the Corporation; exhibit at all reasonable
times the records and books of account to any of the Directors upon application
at the office of the Corporation where such records and books are kept; disburse
the funds of the Corporation as ordered by the Board; and, in general, perform
all duties incident to the office of Treasurer of a corporation and such other
duties as may from time to time be assigned to the Treasurer by the Board or the
President.

          5.11. ASSISTANT SECRETARIES AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS. Assistant
Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers shall perform such duties as shall be
assigned to them by the Secretary or by the Treasurer, respectively, or by the
Board or by the President.

                                   ARTICLE 6

                 CONTRACTS. CHECKS. DRAFTS. BANK ACCOUNTS. ETC.
                 ----------------------------------------------

          6.1. EXECUTION OF CONTRACTS. The Board, except as otherwise provided
in these By-laws, may prospectively or retroactively authorize any officer or
officers, employee or employees or agent or agents, in the name and on behalf of
the Corporation, to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any
instrument, and any such authority may be general or confined to specific
instances, or otherwise limited.

          6.2. LOANS. The Board may prospectively or retroactively authorize the
President or any other officer, employee or agent of the Corporation to effect
loans and advances at any time for the Corporation from any bank, trust company
or other institution, or from any firm, corporation or individual, and for such
loans and advances the person so authorized may make, execute and deliver
promissory notes, bonds or other certificates or evidences of indebtedness of
the Corporation, and, when authorized by the Board so to do, may pledge and
hypothecate or transfer any securities or other property of the Corporation as
security for any such loans or advances. Such authority conferred by the Board
may be general or confined to specific instances, or otherwise limited.

          6.3. CHECKS. DRAFTS. ETC. All checks, drafts and other orders for the
payment of money out of the funds of the Corporation and all evidences of
indebtedness of the Corporation


                                       12
<PAGE>


shall be signed on behalf of the Corporation in such manner as shall from time
to time be determined by resolution of the Board.

          6.4. DEPOSITS. The funds of the Corporation not otherwise employed
shall be deposited from time to time to the order of the Corporation with such
banks, trust companies, investment banking firms, financial institutions or
other depositaries as the Board may select or as may be selected by an officer,
employee or agent of the Corporation to whom such power to select may from time
to time be delegated by the Board.

                                    ARTICLE 7

                               STOCK AND DIVIDENDS
                               -------------------

          7.1. CERTIFICATES REPRESENTING SHARES. The shares of capital stock of
the Corporation shall be represented by certificates in such form (consistent
with the provisions of Section 158 of the General Corporation Law) as shall be
approved by the Board. Such certificates shall be signed by the Chairman, the
President or a Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or
the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, and may be impressed with the seal of
the Corporation or a facsimile thereof. The signatures of the officers upon a
certificate may be facsimiles, if the certificate is countersigned by a transfer
agent or registrar other than the Corporation itself or its employee. In case
any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile
signature has been placed upon any certificate shall have ceased to be such
officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, such
certificate may, unless otherwise ordered by the Board, be issued by the
Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer
agent or registrar at the date of issue.

          7.2. TRANSFER OF SHARES. Transfers of shares of capital stock of the
Corporation shall be made only on the books of the Corporation by the holder
thereof or by the holder's duly authorized attorney appointed by a power of
attorney duly executed and filed with the Secretary or a transfer agent of the
Corporation, and on surrender of the certificate or certificates representing
such shares of capital stock properly endorsed for transfer and upon payment of
all necessary transfer taxes. Every certificate exchanged, returned or
surrendered to the Corporation shall be marked "Cancelled," with the date of
cancellation, by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the transfer agent
of the Corporation. A person in whose name shares of capital stock shall stand
on the books of the Corporation shall be deemed the owner thereof to receive
dividends, to vote as such owner and for all other purposes as respects the
Corporation. No transfer of shares of capital stock shall be valid as against
the Corporation, its stockholders and creditors for any purpose, except to
render the transferee liable for the debts of the Corporation to the extent
provided by law, until such transfer shall have been entered on the books of the
Corporation by an entry showing from and to whom transferred.

          7.3. TRANSFER AND REGISTRY AGENTS. The Corporation may from time to
time maintain one or more transfer offices or agents and registry offices or
agents at such place or places as may be determined from time to time by the
Board.

          7.4. LOST, DESTROYED STOLEN AND MUTILATED CERTIFICATES. The holder of
any shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall immediately notify the
Corporation of any loss,


                                       13
<PAGE>


destruction, theft or mutilation of the certificate representing such shares,
and the Corporation may issue a new certificate to replace the certificate
alleged to have been lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated. The Board may, in its
discretion, as a condition to the issue of any such new certificate, require the
owner of the lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated certificate, or his or her
legal representatives, to make proof satisfactory to the Board of such loss,
destruction, theft or mutilation and to advertise such fact in such manner as
the Board may require, and to give the Corporation and its transfer agents and
registrars, or such of them as the Board may require, a bond in such form, in
such sums and with such surety or Sureties as the Board may direct, to indemnify
the Corporation and its transfer agents and registrars against any claim that
may be made against any of them on account of the continued existence of any
such certificate so alleged to have been lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated
and against any expense in connection with such claim.

          7.5. RULES AND REGULATIONS. The Board may make such rules and
regulations as it may deem expedient, not inconsistent with these By-laws or
with the Certificate of Incorporation, concerning the issue, transfer and
registration of certificates representing shares of its capital stock.

          7.6. RESTRICTION ON TRANSFER OF STOCK. A written restriction on the
transfer or registration of transfer of capital stock of the Corporation, if
permitted by Section 202 of the General Corporation Law and noted conspicuously
on the certificate representing such capital stock, may be enforced against the
holder of the restricted capital stock or any successor or transferee of the
holder, including an executor, administrator, trustee, guardian or other
fiduciary entrusted with like responsibility for the person or estate of the
holder. Unless noted conspicuously on the certificate representing such capital
stock, a restriction, even though permitted by Section 202 of the General
Corporation Law, shall be ineffective except against a person with actual
knowledge of the restriction. A restriction on the transfer or registration of
transfer of capital stock of the Corporation may be imposed either by the
Certificate of Incorporation or by an agreement among any number of stockholders
or among such stockholders and the Corporation. No restriction so imposed shall
be binding with respect to capital stock issued prior to the adoption of the
restriction unless the holders of such capital stock are parties to an agreement
or voted in favor of the restriction.

          7.7. DIVIDENDS SURPLUS' ETC. Subject to the provisions of the
Certificate of Incorporation and of law, the Board:

               7.7.1. may declare and pay dividends or make other distributions
          on the outstanding shares of capital stock in such amounts and at such
          time or times as it, in its discretion, shall deem advisable giving
          due consideration to the condition of the affairs of the Corporation;

               7.7.2. may use and apply, in its discretion, any of the surplus
          of the Corporation in purchasing or acquiring any shares of capital
          stock of the Corporation, or purchase warrants therefor, in accordance
          with law, or any of its bonds, debentures, notes, scrip or other
          securities or evidences of indebtedness; and


                                       14
<PAGE>


               7.7.3. may set aside from time to time out of such surplus or net
          profits such sum or sums as, in its discretion, it may think proper,
          as a reserve fund to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends
          or for the purpose of maintaining or increasing the property or
          business of the Corporation, or for any purpose it may think conducive
          to the best interests of the Corporation.

                                    ARTICLE 8

                                 INDEMNIFICATION
                                 ---------------

          8.1. INDEMNITY UNDERTAKING. To the extent not prohibited by law, the
Corporation shall indemnify any person who is or was made, or threatened to be
made, a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding
(a "Proceeding"), whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative,
including, without limitation, an action by or in the right of the Corporation
to procure a judgment in its favor, by reason of the fact that such person, or a
person of whom such person is the legal representative, is or was a Director or
officer of the Corporation, or, at the request of the Corporation, is or was
serving as a director or officer of any other corporation or in a capacity with
comparable authority or responsibilities for any partnership, joint venture,
trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise (an "Other Entity"), against
judgments, fines; penalties, excise taxes, amounts paid in settlement and costs,
charges and expenses (including attorneys' fees, disbursements and other
charges). Persons who are not directors or officers of the Corporation (or
otherwise entitled to indemnification pursuant to the preceding sentence) may be
similarly indemnified in respect of service to the Corporation or to an Other
Entity at the request of the Corporation to the extent the Board at any time
specifies that such persons are entitled to the benefits of this Article 8.

          8.2. ADVANCEMENT OF EXPENSES. The Corporation shall, from time to
time, reimburse or advance to any Director or officer or other person entitled
to indemnification hereunder the funds necessary for payment of expenses,
including attorneys' fees and disbursements, incurred in connection with any
Proceeding, in advance of the final disposition of such Proceeding; PROVIDED,
HOWEVER, that, if required by the General Corporation Law, such expenses
incurred by or on behalf of any Director or officer or other person may be paid
in advance of the final disposition of a Proceeding only upon receipt by the
Corporation of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such Director or officer (or
other person indemnified hereunder), to repay any such amount so advanced if it
shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no
further right of appeal that such Director, officer or other person is not
entitled to be indemnified for such expenses.

          8.3. RIGHTS NOT EXCLUSIVE. The rights to indemnification and
reimbursement or advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to,
this Article 8 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which a
person seeking indemnification or reimbursement or advancement of expenses may
have or hereafter be entitled under any statute, the Certificate of
Incorporation, these By-laws, any agreement, any vote of stockholders or
disinterested Directors or otherwise, both as to action in his or her official
capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.


                                       15
<PAGE>


          8.4. CONTINUATION OF BENEFITS. The rights to indemnification and
reimbursement or advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to,
this Article 8 shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a Director or
officer (or other person indemnified hereunder) and shall inure to the benefit
of the executors, administrators, legatees and distributees of such person.

          8.5. INSURANCE. The Corporation shall have power to purchase and
maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer,
employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the
Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of an Other Entity,
against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person
in any such capacity, or arising out of such person's status as such, whether or
not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such
liability under the provisions of this Article 8, the Certificate of
Incorporation or under section 145 of the General Corporation Law or any other
provision of law.

          8.6. BINDING EFFECT. The provisions of this Article 8 shall be a
contract between the Corporation, on the one hand, and each Director and officer
who serves in such capacity at any time while this Article 8 is in effect and
any other person entitled to indemnification hereunder, on the other hand,
pursuant to which the Corporation and each such Director, officer or other
person intend to be, and shall be legally bound. No repeal or modification of
this Article 8 shall affect any rights or obligations with respect to any state
of facts then or theretofore existing or thereafter arising or any proceeding
theretofore or thereafter brought or threatened based in whole or in part upon
any such state of facts.

          8.7. PROCEDURAL RIGHTS. The rights to indemnification and
reimbursement or advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to,
this Article 8 shall be enforceable by any person entitled to such
indemnification or reimbursement or advancement of expenses in any court of
competent jurisdiction. The burden of proving that such indemnification or
reimbursement or advancement of expenses is not appropriate shall be on the
Corporation. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its Board of
Directors, its independent legal counsel and its stockholders) to have made a
determination prior to the commencement of such action that such indemnification
or reimbursement or advancement of expenses is proper in the circumstances nor
an actual determination by the Corporation (including its Board of Directors,
its independent legal counsel and its stockholders) that such person is not
entitled to such indemnification or reimbursement or advancement of expenses
shall constitute a defense to the action or create a presumption that such
person is not so entitled. Such a person shall also be indemnified for any
expenses incurred in connection with successfully establishing his or her right
to such indemnification or reimbursement or advancement of expenses, in whole or
in part, in any such proceeding.

          8.8. SERVICE DEEMED AT CORPORATION'S REQUEST. Any Director or officer
of the Corporation serving in any capacity (a) another corporation of which a
majority of the shares entitled to vote in the election of its directors is
held, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation or (b) any employee benefit
plan of the Corporation or any corporation referred to in clause (a) shall be
deemed to be doing so at the request of the Corporation.


                                       16
<PAGE>


          8.9. ELECTION OF APPLICABLE LAW. Any person entitled to be indemnified
or to reimbursement or advancement of expenses as a matter of right pursuant to
this Article 8 may elect to have the right to indemnification or reimbursement
or advancement of expenses interpreted on the basis of the applicable law in
effect at the time of the occurrence of the event or events giving rise to the
applicable Proceeding, to the extent permitted by law, or on the basis of the
applicable law in effect at the time such indemnification or reimbursement or
advancement of expenses is sought. Such election shall be made, by a notice in
writing to the Corporation, at the time indemnification or reimbursement or
advancement of expenses is sought; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that if no such notice is
given, the right to indemnification or reimbursement or advancement of expenses
shall be determined by the law in effect at the time indemnification or
reimbursement or advancement of expenses is sought.

                                    ARTICLE 9

                                BOOKS AND RECORDS
                                -----------------

          9.1. BOOKS AND RECORDS. There shall be kept at the principal of
office of the Corporation correct and complete records and books of account
recording the financial transactions of the Corporation and minutes of the
proceedings of the stockholders, the Board and any committee of the Board.
The Corporation shall keep at its principal office, or at the office of the
transfer agent or registrar of the Corporation, a record containing the names
and addresses of all stockholders, the number and class of shares held by each
and the dates when they respectively became the owners of record thereof.

          9.2. FORM OF RECORDS. Any records maintained by the Corporation in the
regular course of its business, including its stock ledger, books of account,
and minute books, may be kept on, or be in the form of, punch cards, magnetic
tape, photographs, microphotography, or any other information storage device,
provided that the records so kept can be converted into clearly legible written
form within a reasonable time. The Corporation shall so convert any records so
kept upon the request of any person entitled to inspect the same.

          9.3. INSPECTION OF BOOKS AND RECORDS. Except as otherwise provided by
law, the Board shall determine from time to time whether, and, if allowed, when
and under what conditions and regulations, the accounts, books, minutes and
other records of the Corporation, or any of them, shall be open to the
stockholders for inspection.

                                   ARTICLE 10

                                      SEAL
                                      ----

          The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the
Corporation, the year of its organization and the words "Corporate Seal,
Delaware." The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be
impressed or affixed or otherwise reproduced.


                                       17
<PAGE>


                                   ARTICLE 11

                                   FISCAL YEAR
                                   -----------

          The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed, and may be changed,
by resolution of the Board.

                                   ARTICLE 12

                              PROXIES AND CONSENTS
                              --------------------

          Unless otherwise directed by the Board, the Chairman, the President,
any Vice President, the Secretary or the Treasurer, or any one of them, may
execute and deliver on behalf of the Corporation proxies respecting any and all
shares or other ownership interests of any Other Entity owned by the Corporation
appointing such person or persons as the officer executing the same shall deem
proper to represent and vote the shares or other ownership interests so owned at
any and all meetings of holders of shares or other ownership interests, whether
general or special, and/or to execute and deliver consents respecting such
shares or other ownership interests; or any of the aforesaid officers may attend
any meeting of the holders of shares or other ownership interests of such Other
Entity and thereat vote or exercise any or all other powers of the Corporation
as the holder of such shares or other ownership interests.

                                   ARTICLE 13

                                EMERGENCY BY-LAWS
                                -----------------

          Unless the Certificate of Incorporation provides otherwise, the
following provisions of this Article 13 shall be effective during an emergency,
which is defined as when a quorum of the Corporation's Directors cannot be
readily assembled because of some catastrophic event. During such emergency:

          13.1. NOTICE TO BOARD MEMBERS. Any one member of the Board or any one
of the following officers: Chairman, President, any Vice President, Secretary,
or Treasurer, may call a meeting of the Board. Notice of such meeting need be
given only to those Directors whom it is practicable to reach, and may be given
in any practical manner, including by publication and radio. Such notice shall
be given at least six hours prior to commencement of the meeting.

          13.2. TEMPORARY DIRECTORS AND QUORUM. One or more officers of the
Corporation present at the emergency Board meeting, as is necessary to achieve a
quorum, shall be considered to be Directors for the meeting, and shall so serve
in order of rank, and within the same rank, in order of seniority. In the event
that less than a quorum of the Directors are present (including any officers who
are to serve as Directors for the meeting), those Directors present (including
the officers serving as Directors) shall constitute a quorum.

          13.3. ACTIONS PERMITTED TO BE TAKEN. The Board as constituted in
Section 13.2, and after notice as set forth in Section 13.1 may:

               13.3.1. prescribe emergency powers to any officer of the
          Corporation;


                                       18
<PAGE>


               13.3.2. delegate to any officer or Director, any of the powers of
          the Board;

               13.3.3. designate lines of succession of officers and agents, in
          the event that any of them are unable to discharge their duties;

               13.3.4. relocate the principal place of business, or designate
          successive or simultaneous principal places of business; and

               13.3.5. take any other convenient, helpful or necessary action to
          carry on the business of the Corporation;

                                   ARTICLE 14

                                   AMENDMENTS
                                   ----------

          These By-laws may be amended or repealed and new By-laws may be
adopted by a vote of the holders of shares entitled to vote in the election of
Directors or by the Board. Any By-laws adopted or amended by the Board may be
amended or repealed by the Stockholders entitled to vote thereon.


                                       19

Source: OneCLE Business Contracts.